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The Communist Manifesto (Das Kommunistische Manifest) is a human achievement that needs no introduction. It was first published in German language in 1848 as Manifesto of the Communist Party. Since Europe was in the grip of unprecedented revolutions at that time, it was immediately translated into many European languages. Today, it exists in nearly all world languages and continues to stir the downtrodden of the Earth. This edition includes Marx and Engels s preface to the 1872 German edition and Engels s preface to the 1888 English version.
About the Author
In 1818, Karl Marx, descended from a long line of rabbis, was born in Prussian Rhineland. Marxs father converted to Protestantism shortly before Karls birth. Educated at the Universities of Bonn, Jena, and Berlin, Marx founded the Socialist newspaper Vorwarts in 1844 in Paris. After being expelled from France at the urging of the Prussian government, which “banished” Marx in absentia, Marx studied economics in Brussels. He and > founded the Communist League in 1847 and published the Communist Manifesto. After the failed revolution of 1848 in Germany, in which Marx participated, he eventually wound up in London. Marx worked as foreign correspondent for several U.S. publications. His Das Kapital came out in three volumes (1867, 1885 and 1894). Marx organized the International and helped found the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Although Marx was not religious, > later remarked, “His belief that there is a cosmic force called Dialectical Materialism which governs human history independently of human volitions, is mere mythology” (Portraits from Memory, 1956). Marx once quipped, “All I know is that I am not a Marxist” (according to Engels in a letter to C. Schmidt; see Whos Who in Hell by Warren Allen Smith). D. 1883.
Marx began co-operating with > on editing >s Philosophy of Religion in 1840. Marx was also engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the > and > Philosophy of Nature, which he completed in 1841. It was described as “a daring and original piece of work in which Marx set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy”: the essay was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided, instead, to submit his thesis to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD in April 1841. As Marx and > were both atheists, in March 1841 they began plans for a journal entitled Archiv des Atheismus (Atheistic Archives), but it never came to fruition.
Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history. Marx is typically cited, with mile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.